This week’s Tidy Tuesday speaks to the importance of visualization in data exploration. Alberto Cairo created this simulated data set in order to demonstrate how misleading summary statistics can be and to show how useful visualization is in uncovering patterns in data. In this spirit, let’s start exploring this data set to see what we find.

```
## Rows: 1,846
## Columns: 3
## $ dataset <chr> "dino", "dino", "dino", "dino", "dino", "dino", "dino", "dino…
## $ x <dbl> 55.3846, 51.5385, 46.1538, 42.8205, 40.7692, 38.7179, 35.6410…
## $ y <dbl> 97.1795, 96.0256, 94.4872, 91.4103, 88.3333, 84.8718, 79.8718…
```

```
## dataset x y
## Length:1846 Min. :15.56 Min. : 0.01512
## Class :character 1st Qu.:41.07 1st Qu.:22.56107
## Mode :character Median :52.59 Median :47.59445
## Mean :54.27 Mean :47.83510
## 3rd Qu.:67.28 3rd Qu.:71.81078
## Max. :98.29 Max. :99.69468
```

```
## [1] "dino" "away" "h_lines" "v_lines" "x_shape"
## [6] "star" "high_lines" "dots" "circle" "bullseye"
## [11] "slant_up" "slant_down" "wide_lines"
```

We have 1,846 sets of x and y coordinates divided up into thirteen descriptive data sets.

```
## # A tibble: 13 x 6
## dataset Mean_X Mean_Y SD_X SD_Y Corr
## <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
## 1 away 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0641
## 2 bullseye 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0686
## 3 circle 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0683
## 4 dino 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0645
## 5 dots 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0603
## 6 h_lines 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0617
## 7 high_lines 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0685
## 8 slant_down 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0690
## 9 slant_up 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0686
## 10 star 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0630
## 11 v_lines 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0694
## 12 wide_lines 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0666
## 13 x_shape 54.3 47.8 16.8 26.9 -0.0656
```

These data sets have a lot in common. Specifically the x and y means, x and y standard deviations, and Pearson’s correlation coefficients are nearly identical.

Let’s try fitting each data set to a linear model.

```
## # A tibble: 26 x 6
## dataset term estimate std.error statistic p.value
## <chr> <chr> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl> <dbl>
## 1 dino (Intercept) 53.5 7.69 6.95 1.29e-10
## 2 dino x -0.104 0.136 -0.764 4.46e- 1
## 3 away (Intercept) 53.4 7.69 6.94 1.31e-10
## 4 away x -0.103 0.135 -0.760 4.48e- 1
## 5 h_lines (Intercept) 53.2 7.70 6.91 1.53e-10
## 6 h_lines x -0.0992 0.136 -0.732 4.66e- 1
## 7 v_lines (Intercept) 53.9 7.69 7.01 9.38e-11
## 8 v_lines x -0.112 0.135 -0.824 4.12e- 1
## 9 x_shape (Intercept) 53.6 7.69 6.97 1.17e-10
## 10 x_shape x -0.105 0.135 -0.778 4.38e- 1
## # … with 16 more rows
```

The intercept, slope and standard errors are all pretty much identical. Let’s plot these models and take a look.

The models match up nicely, but there’s a lot of noise and there seem to be some strong unexplained patterns in the underlying data. Let’s look at each data set individually.

These plots are much more different than the summary statisitcs would suggest!

That’s all for this week. Check out the code on GitHub.